Our Shocks and Stresses

Person gardening on apartment balcony


Shocks are acute events threatening major loss of life, damage to assets and a city’s ability to function and provide basic services, particularly for poor or vulnerable populations. These shocks may be naturally occurring (such as floods and bushfires) or human-made (such as cyber attacks or building collapse).

Our prioritised shocks:

Shocks Description
Bushfires Major fires drive community safety concerns and damage to property and infrastructure. 70% of the Campbelltown Local Government Area (LGA) is classified as Bush Fire Prone Land, and significant area within and adjacent to the LGA are dense bushland that represent severe bushfire risk.
Cyber attack Cyber-attack is an emerging risk with the potential to affect everyone within the LGA and Council’s operations themselves. Serious impacts to businesses and government agencies are probable.
Disease pandemic The threat of pandemics have proven to be far-reaching for all sectors of the community. Impacts extend from health concerns, to social isolation, and financial vulnerability.
Drought and water shortages Over the coming decades Campbelltown’s water supply catchments can expect lower average rainfall and higher temperatures, which will result in less runoff and lower drinking water yields.
Extreme temperatures and heatwaves Western Sydney experiences more frequent, and more severe extreme temperatures than wider Metropolitan Sydney. These will be exacerbated by increases in extreme heat due to climate change.
Flood Heavy localised rainfall can cause local overland flooding, Metropolitan Sydney-wide rainfall can cause riverine flooding. Floods drive community safety concerns and cause damage to property and infrastructure.
High structural unemployment or underemployment The failure of Australian core financial mechanisms or institutions has the potential to seriously affect residents through rapid unemployment growth, inflation, and housing affordability.
Infrastructure failure Major failure of the primary infrastructure that we rely upon every day (e.g. transport, energy, water, telecommunications) as a result of natural or human-made occurrence.
Major natural catastrophe Events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, geomagnetic storms that have the potential to cause localised or Metropolitan Sydney-wide damage.
Severe storms A severe storm event (wind, hail, electrical, rain) that leads to safety concerns and causes significant damage to property and infrastructure e.g. east coast lows.


Stresses are chronic (ongoing or cyclical) natural or human-made phenomenon that renders the city less able to function and provide basic services, particularly for poor or vulnerable populations (such as high unemployment or poor transport infrastructure).

Our prioritised stresses:

Stresses Description
Aging community infrastructure and facilities As the LGA’s population grows there is increased pressure on existing assets, infrastructure, and services to provide modern levels of service based on existing designs and maintenance budgets.
Family violence, drug and alcohol abuse A continued increase in reporting domestic and family violence is seen by police and other community agencies over the past decade, with a particular sharp increase during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Food security Inadequate access to food is occurring more frequently for many within the LGA. Community members most vulnerable are those experiencing homelessness, the unemployed, single parent households, and low-income earners.
Homelessness The number of people living in crisis accommodation, rough sleeping or living in temporary housing is increasing.
Housing affordability Housing affordability is an emerging but significant stress for both renters and owner-occupiers as housing prices rapidly grow, coupled with an increasing cost of living.
Increasing average temperatures The LGA currently experiences an average of ten days above 35°C per year and hot days and heatwaves are expected to increase in both frequency and intensity for all climate change scenarios.
Increasing congestion for commuter travel There is inequitable access to multimodal transport options across Sydney, with least access available across the west and southwest. This is especially problematic for people who access jobs outside of the LGA.
Increasing densification of development Campbelltown is experiencing a rapid growth both the number of new developments and the redevelopment of existing lots to increase in the number of dwellings.
Increasing social isolation Social isolation relates to community members that have minimal contact with others which can be harmful to mental and physical health.
Increasing vulnerable populations Vulnerable and disadvantaged populations are more likely to be affected by shocks and stresses, as these factors increase so do the number of vulnerable groups.